The following section begins the analysis of the data. Then the results of the L2 German vocabulary for the L1 Turkish speakers were analyzed. Here, there was also no statistical difference between groups. The authors then analyze spontaneous language used by the L1 Turkish L2 German children to investigate the rate at which noun-phrases and determiner-phrases are acquired by SES group.
The authors summarize the results in the final section and emphasize two main points. First, that SES had no effect for this particular group of bilinguals, and second, that looking at other linguistic elements, such as morphology, provides a deep understanding than a straightforward comparison of passive vocabulary knowledge.
In the first two sections of this chapter, the authors recall the idea of register described by Maas in the foreword. Here they focus on the expansion of noun phrases through attributes as a sign of growth in the written register. This chapter also outlines four groups of NPs for study: simple NPs without attributes, NPs with non-propositional attributes, NPs with propositional attributes, and NPs that have more than one attributive extension of different types.
Section five presents the results, which are complex in that there is no clear linear trajectory between age and NP complexity.
In the final section, the author discuss possible reasons for this, including the purposeful dismissal of particular registers in youth culture. In the first section, the author articulates the differences in gender between Russian, a language with gender, and Turkish, a language without gender. In the fourth section, the author describes the participants and the testing methods.
The test design is a cloze task where students must fill in the missing determiner and also select what pronoun would replace the subject. The items are differentiated by gender, but also by animacy and sex.
The results presented in section five show consistency in gender assignment, even if it is not target-like. The authors discuss in section six that the children then must have a systematic way of assigning gender, although it may be different from the one used in German, where animacy plays a particularly important role. In the conclusion, the author makes the claim that both groups used the same semantic strategy for animate objects, and they also showed grammatical strategies for inanimate objects. The author also argues that the non-target-like gender assignment to inanimate objects lead to the conclusion that gender is only realized as a grammatical category when children begin to apply it to inanimate objects.
The study aims at understanding the acquisition process of German plural morphology by these L2 German learners. In the first section, the authors hint at the difficulties in learning German plural morphology. For example, is it die Onkel or die Onkels?
In section three, the authors outline the nine different types of plural marking in German. In section four, the authors outline their empirical study. The results of the study show that while these children are making errors, they are making systematic ones which are reflective of both the structure and frequency of plural formation in German. They also discuss how some plural endings are better or worse examples of how plural nouns look.
In the introduction, the author presents the challenges that faces many school children from immigrant families, including linguistic, social, and cultural difficulties. The second section contains foundations for grammar and vocabulary instruction as well as stumbling blocks one can anticipate, such as inflection and words with more than one meaning.
In section three, the author puts forth the idea of the language detective, where students are encouraged to examine all of their languages to gain a better understanding of the differences between them. Section four contains a transcription of one such language comparison. In addition to linguistic comparisons, the author also describes the need for the use of culturally familiar artifacts. Section five describes the use of Nasreddin Hodscha, a well-known middle-eastern folk hero, with texts in both Turkish and German. The author concludes with recommendations for systematic and culturally relevant instruction for DaZ learners.
With a number of the articles directly related to understanding what immigrant populations bring with them to the table when they start their DaZ journey, this collection helps to frame the instruction of DaZ with regard to sociolinguistic and pedagogical considerations. Just like the definite articles, these der -words precede nouns and indicate the case of the accompanying noun.
Indefinite articles can also precede a noun and specify its case. The indefinite article ein and all of its inflectional variations mean a or an. Because of this, ein cannot be used with the plural form of a noun. Just as one would never say "a books" or "a children" in English, it is neither possible to combine ein or any variation of it with plural forms in German. Although it is unacceptable to use the indefinite article with a plural form, the German article kein , which is inflected similarly to ein and means no, not a , can be and often is combined with plurals.
As noted above with respect to definite articles, with indefinite articles, too, do the nouns themselves take endings in the dative plural -n and the genitive masculine and neuter -[ e ] s. In addition to the der -words, ein , and kein , the possessive adjectives can also precede a noun and show its case. As ein -words, the possessive adjectives follow the same declension pattern as kein.
Whenever the possessive adjective euer has an ending, the final e is dropped and the endings are added to the root eur -: euer Kind nom. Remember that the nouns themselves take endings in the dative plural -n and the genitive masculine and neuter -[ e ] s regardless of the article with which the noun is used.
Inkelas, Sharon: Prince, Alan and Paul Smolensky: Selkirk, Elisabeth O. Zec, Draga: Working Papers of the Cornell Phonetics Laboratory.
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