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Get access to the full version of this article. View access options below. You previously purchased this article through ReadCube. Institutional Login. Log in to Wiley Online Library. Purchase Instant Access. View Preview. Learn more Check out. Abstract Books reviewed in this article: Bak, J. Volume 10 , Issue 1 March Pages Father de Foucauld is now able to go to confession.
The visitors stay five days, and they make plans.
In his diary, Father de Foucauld notes precisely the observations made by this thirty year old bishop, in whom he finds a real friend:. The evangelical seed sown in the souls of children cannot germinate if the milieu in which they live is not prepared a little Besides, all souls are made for the light, for Jesus; all souls are His heritage, and none, with good will, is incapable of knowing and loving Him. The Muslims, therefore, are in no way incapable of being converted Let us work hard at the evangelization of men of ripe years, firstly through conversations mentioning only God and natural religion, then according to circumstances, giving each one just so much of the truth as one hopes will be acceptable.
I understood, I felt that I was a hermit It will always be the solitary life wherever Jesus gathers you to Himself in order to give you to souls He will still practise hospitality and devotion towards souls, but as a nomad. He will leave his enclosure, taking his interior enclosure with him. Wherever the Father goes, the Touaregs, even the most insubordinate, fall to their knees to kiss his gandoura and to receive his baraka: the marabout! He rises before everyone else to say his Mass in the presence of one assistant, whom he has wakened.
They march until sunrise. During the march, he remains for the most part on foot and at the back, saying his rosary, his litanies and making his meditation. When the heat becomes overpowering, from 50 to 60 degrees, they stop for the one rest during the whole day. Whilst the men rest, in the overwhelming heat, the Father is indefatigable, visiting the officers and the men, distributing remedies, a little quinine to the feverish. And then they set off again. He is admired by all. When they halt, the officers and the soldiers are busy setting up the camp, whilst he carries out his civilising mission.
He goes from tent to tent, taming these savages, who were conquered only yesterday and subdued by force, giving them remedies and making them little presents: safety pins, needles, small objects they very much need. For the moment, the Touaregs put up with the French and hate them, and the Father is not unaware of that:. It is not sincere; they yield to necessity. How long will it have to be before they actually have the sentiments they simulate?
Perhaps they will never have them. If they have them one day, it will be the day when they become Christians. It is not even I who sow: I prepare the ground, others will sow, and still others will harvest I accompany an officer who has the same civilising mission.
On the 2 nd February , they reached Adrar, the most southerly outpost, where Commandant Laperrine installed Father de Foucauld with him. Half of the Targui people had already surrendered. In the coming months, he would try to extend French penetration as far as the Sudanese frontier. Laperrine wrote to Captain Regnault on the 19 th February that he hoped to let the Father loose among the Touareg at Hoggar, in order to begin a civilizing work by befriending Moussa ag Amastane, their chief. Constantly repulsed by the Arabs, these people should prove to be less rebellious than others to Christianity.
Giving remedies, occasionally grain and vegetables and, when necessary, alms; that, according to Commandant Laperrine and the widest information, is the way for me to enter into relations with them; but above all learn their language : the best place to study the Touareg language tamahaq is Akabli where all the inhabitants speak it and where there are endless Touareg caravans. It has therefore been decided that I make every effort to study Touareg there until, in a few weeks time, Commandant Laperrine can fetch me to follow him on his rounds.
Lieutenant Besset took the Father to Akabli. There he found Laperrine, and together they went down to Timbuktu. During the journey, he drew sketches and continued to learn Tamahaq. They nimbly skirted round the Tanezrouft, the desert of thirst. It was a very tough expedition, during the month of March They were seeking to make the link between Algeria and Sudan, the dream of all the colonials.
But at Timiaouine, just as they emerged from the Tanezrouft, there was drama. The lieutenant would not tolerate a column from Algeria encroaching on his territory.
Each one defended the expansion of his own military region. Laperrine, who knew that the colonials from the Sudan were capable of every violence, magnificently gave way and withdrew, even though his pride was terribly ruffled. Foucauld approved and refused to shake hands with the officers from the Sudan. I fear that this great colonial Empire, conquered for some years, and which could give rise to so much good, moral good, may presently become a source of shame for us, it will give us occasion to blush before the very savages, and will cause the name French and, alas, the name Christian to be cursed, and it will make these populations, who are wretched as it is, to become even more wretched.
At any rate, their banditry makes me blush before the Touaregs. Having been well received by the Iforas, who welcomed them as submissive tribesmen, bringing them presents and diffa, they acted like savages. Every minute, we learn of a new act of brutality or theft. After having given them a brotherly handshake on their arrival, I shall leave tomorrow without even greeting them farewell, for I do not wish to be part of such infamous behaviour.
They went northwards, passing via Tamanrasset, but they did not stop there.
In the heart of this Algonkin land was planted the ethnic group called the Iroquois, with its several distinct branches, often at war with each other. Jogi men and women had diverse subsistence activities, such as dealing in horses, harvesting, fortune-telling , bloodletting , and begging. The entire party were again driven from the cantonments in , De Marieul being the last of his order to remain on duty. Mohamed Bin Zayed, Pope Francis sign joint declaration. While doing this he met a ship from Rochelle and another from Havre de Grace, whence he heard the news of the lamentable death of our late good King, without knowing by whom or how he was killed.
From the 25 th November to the 12 th December, he follows a retreat, taking resolutions on the forty articles of his Rule:. Our works are only of value in so far as they are works of grace, of the Holy Spirit, of Jesus.
When I am raised up from the earth, I shall draw all men to Myself. He is tired; he suffers from headaches, and hopes never to travel again. How much I thank you for your pious letter and for the touching image accompanying it May we, like Them, serve, glorify and sanctify their names as best we can! If my Bishop wills, and if your good husband authorises me, I shall accompany him.
Were I to remain here, I would write to you every week to keep you informed and to allay your worries But there will be not the slightest worry; accompanied as he will be, he can circulate the entire Sahara without danger; and his provisions are such that his health will not suffer as a result. I am awaiting daily the answer from my Bishop telling me, yes or no, whether I should beg your dear husband to take me with him.
With what peace the eye rests on these spaces which open simultaneously onto the earth and onto the infinite horizons of eternity and of the divine perfections! I thank you with all my soul for your prayers. Please continue with them, I beg you. May it be done in us and in all! May His Kingdom come! May His will be done on earth as it is in Heaven! You can be absolutely certain once and for all that I shall always keep you informed of what is of interest to your dear husband: Thanks be to God there is nothing but the best news to be given of him.
Since his return from France, he never ceases to be in the very best of health. With all my heart, I thank your dear children for their good prayers and their good wishes, and I too send them my fondest love On the 28 th January , General Lyautey paid him a call to obtain detailed information about his tour of the South and especially to question him on the subject of Morocco.
They spoke at length, but what differences there were between them! But no telegraph ever came. Their ideas of colonisation were quite different.
Our Father wrote two pages on this subject, which we must re-read see below. Very gracious and benevolent towards us, treating everyone the same, holding the balance equal, loving the missionaries for their civilizing work, but on one condition: that he does not have to be concerned with them, that he does not hear about them, and that they do their work discreetly and quietly without any need for intervention.
He has not answered my letters and he has been talking for three days with Gautier Herr Professor at the oasis hotel on the following theme: he adores me, he loves me greatly, he finds me perfect, but he does not want to hear about me. If one had to illustrate two different spirits of colonisation, the idealistic which ends in catastrophe, turning against both coloniser and colonised, and the realistic , imbued with the Christian spirit, which alone is beneficent and decisive, it would be sufficient to compare Lyautey and Foucauld.
Foucauld knew nothing but failure and he died alone in a Sahara on the verge of an uprising, yet his life, his ardent faith and his martyrdom will arouse the enthusiasm of generations. In many respects, they are similar. The one born at Nancy in and the other at Strasbourg in , they suffered from the war of 70, which exalted their patriotism; but before long they both distanced themselves from religion and the French ideal alike. It is the Army that will save them from interior anarchy, after years of uncertainty, disgust and ennui.
Let us begin by following Lyautey At other times, in moments of religious exaltation, on retreat with the Carthusians in and , he thought of becoming a monk. But no, action got the better of spirituality, with a secret and perpetual feeling of frustration, which will sometimes make him sob whole nights, at the height of his Moroccan glory What action? As a legitimist, he visited the Comte de Chambord in but, continuing his travels, he was received in audience by Pope Leo XIII who put him off his monarchist loyalism.
The damages resulting from this papal dissuasion are incalculable. In fact, he is champing at the bit. He regards all European war as fratricidal and destructive; he despises anyone who feels intensely patriotic. He accepts all religions as the same and all races on the same level.