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Shipped from UK. Established seller since Bibliographic Details Title: Understanding the Globalization of About this title Synopsis: This book provides an introduction to the complexities of contemporary Western Intelligence and its dynamics during an era of globalization. Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Sophisticated information technologies permit instantaneous communication among the far-flung operations of global enterprises.
New materials are revolutionizing sectors as diverse as construction and communications. Advanced manufacturing technologies have altered long-standing patterns of productivity and employment. Improved air and sea transportation has greatly accelerated the worldwide flow of people and goods. All this has both created and mandated greater interdependence among firms and nations. The rapid rate of innovation and the dynamics of technology flows mean that comparative advantage is short-lived.
To maximize returns, arrangements such as transnational mergers and shared production agreements are sought to bring together partners with complementary interests and strengths. This permits both developed and developing countries to harness technology more efficiently, with the expectation of creating higher standards of living for all involved. Rapid technological innovation and the proliferation of transnational organizations are driving the formation of a global economy that sometimes conflicts with nationalistic concerns about maintaining comparative advantage and competitiveness.
It is indeed a time of transition for firms and governments alike. This book provides a broad overview of these issues and seeks to shed light on such areas as the changing nature of international competition, influences of new technologies on international trade, and economic and social concerns arising from differences in national cultures and standards of living associated with adoption and use of new technologies. On the one hand, their assessment made clear that though most technological advance occurs in industry, there are too few mechanisms for exchange of views on international technology and cooperation that involve both private and public sector representatives in a forum not constrained by the formal policies and stands of national governments.
There is great need for improved and more open lines of international communication on topics where engineering and technology intertwine with trade and economic growth. The second includes relationships at the institutional level, that is, the impact of technology on the management of businesses and industries.
The fourth relationship occurs at the international level. Here information flows, trade frictions, and alliances characterize technological development, its diffusion, global competition, and economic advance.
In this concise introduction to the complexities of contemporary western intelligence and its dynamics during an era of globalization, Adam Svendsen discusses. PDF | List of Illustrations Preface Acknowledgements List of Abbreviations Interview Notes PART I: BACKGROUND Unpacking Intelligence and.
At the human level a key area of change is the invisible contract between a manufacturing company and its customers and employees. In the factory, we are seeing a movement away from the expectation that workers should be organized to fit the technologies and a movement toward networking and. As a result of this phenomenon, organizations that pursue single objectives may be less suited for survival than those that consider a broader range of issues that optimize the human, organizational, and technological elements.
At the institutional level, private enterprises are the principal instruments in many countries for developing and using technology, although governments play an important enabling role. The task of private enterprises is to be knowledgeable about the current state of science and technology, to understand the needs of the marketplace, and then to create technologies, products, and services that best meet those market needs. Morris Tanenbaum pointed out that this endeavor embraces many disciplines basic science, engineering, production, distribution, marketing, and finance and individual motivations.
Many participants and observers of the contemporary technological scene propose that we are going through a period of discontinuous change as the breadth of technological applications expands and the time scale of change becomes shorter. This is particularly true with regard to the information technologies—the one technology most rapidly changing other technologies. It achieves its greatest power when it is most global; where it provides the means to obtain access to the information systems of other countries and establish arrangements that promote the transfer of technology.
Government plays a central role in technology issues at the national level.
Technology has now become a part of almost every political discussion as politicians have realized the impact of technology on world events. Public attitudes among various countries also differ, and these differences can affect governmental technology policy. In this respect, multinational corporations, responsibly managed and sensibly treated by the countries in which they invest,.
From an international perspective, the main issue is to sustain and improve world growth and improve growth per capita. This breaks down into the problems of Western Europe, Japan, the United States, Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, and the problems of the more and less advanced developing countries.
Modern growth, in other words, was stymied until Globalisation 1. With cheaper international shipping, more people bought goods from far away. Today, we are witnessing a reverse trend. Baldwin, Nakatomi. By using our website you consent to all cookies in accordance with our updated Cookie Notice. When companies exploit price differences — buying low and selling high — we get international trade.
Robert Malpas noted that it becomes essential for all these players to harness technology for growth; however, this effort is frequently constrained by protectionism, concerns about intellectual property, the demands of international marketing and finance, and, of course, national security. The net result appears to be that emerging nations, with a few exceptions, have even more difficulty achieving the growth necessary to close the gap with leading nations.
Among the trends at the international level that can help sustain and improve world growth: the rebirth of interest in manufacturing, the spread of expert systems which multiply skills and help in the industrialization process, the acceptance of multinational corporations, the privatization of various industries, and the increased interest of governments in technology.
As evidenced by the papers in this volume, these four relationships at the human, institutional, national, and international levels permeate discussions on the globalization of technology. In his keynote paper, Simon Ramo maintains that technological issues lie at the heart of most of the social, economic, and political issues of today, sometimes causing problems but more often offering possibilities for their solution.
From this perspective, Ramo goes on to make several intriguing predictions about the role of technology in the future. Particularly powerful influences on the diffusion of new technological processes and products will be governments, corporations, national security concerns, and the rate of advances in scientific research. Technological discovery will become a global rather than an individual or national endeavor.
As a result, new mechanisms will be developed to facilitate the flow of technology, despite protectionist-nationalist tendencies to stem the free exchange of information. One of these influences impeding the flow of technology is national security concerns. Ramo, however, is optimistic about the direction of the two superpowers, predicting that offensive forces will be reduced, thereby lessening interference with the flow of advanced technology and allowing the application of military technologies to peacetime applications in manufacturing, transportation, and services.
Since the role of government in setting a national direction for technology is so pervasive, its relationship to the private sector in the. Yet, Ramo argues, it is only the government that can perform the regulatory functions necessary for the smooth operation of free enterprise activity that makes use of new technologies.
It is also the government, he says, that will be the primary obstacle to diffusion of the benefits of technology to world society. As experts on the costs and benefits of developing technology, engineers are in a key position to contribute to policy formation of these issues. For engineers to better prepare themselves for the future, Ramo suggests that engineering education place more emphasis on the links between engineering and its societal applications.
The result, he says, will be engineers equipped to play a broader role in influencing government policies and practices regarding technological advance. He compares manufacturing to agriculture—although it will no longer dominate the economy or provide the majority of jobs, it will continue to perform an important function even in a service-oriented society. Certain key technologies are bringing about this transition, both creating new industries and rejuvenating mature ones, and in the process are changing patterns of development throughout the world.
The rapid spread of innovation makes it imperative that firms quickly exploit any competitive advantage. Moreover, their increased ability to operate in the global marketplace rein-forces the importance of cooperative agreements to advance innovation.